In the sixth century, when the Indian born Bodhidharma (Figure 1) brought a new sect to the mainland of
Figure 1. “Hui-k’o presenting his arm to Bodhidharma” by Sesshu. Fifteenth century. This work of Sesshu show him sitting in the snow in meditation before the wall of cavern while the Chinese monk Hui-k’o (in Japanese, Eko), who was to become the second patriarch of the Zen sect. To prove his sincerity, Hui-k’o has cut off his left fore-arm and present in to Bodhidharma (Tetsuo 1983).
Zen Buddhism and Buddhism posses relations that extremely and have the same aim that is to attain enlightenment and entrance into nirvana. If we take Buddhism as the general term for a particular religious tradition, then Zen is a school within that tradition. Concerning the question of the bonds between this school and its mother religion, we must give attention first of all, though not exclusively, to the image of the Buddha more specifically, to the image of Sakyamuni, the historical Buddha. It is here that Zen finds its very center, its heart. Not only from textual evidence, of which there is certainly no lack, but also from the statements of authentic Zen masters, and above all from sympathetic acquaintance with Zen disciples, it is clear what the image of Buddha means for Zen.
The emphasize between Zen Buddhism and Buddhism was different in philosophical side. Thus also in the development as to influence into human daily life, art, landscape and architecture. Even more this philosophy influences to penetrate into all. In other side, Engel (1964:365) described about the spreading of Zen philosophy, because of its particular methods on the one hand its universal approach on the other, has, from the Japanese Middle ages on, influenced all phases of Japanese life more profoundly than has any of the other sects and was closely associated not only with the arts, social institutions, government, and all classes of society, but also, particularly, with architecture and landscaping. We had seen the Zen philosophy later develop and spread to the whole things especially in Muromachi period.
Therefore if we desire to study the Zen Buddhist architecture, we must also understand the philosophy of Zen Buddhism (or Buddhism). As what Gropious et al. (1962:4) said, we can understand the architecture of nations and period only as we win an inside knowledge of their way of thinking and their philosophy. So if we want to know about the Zen Buddhist architecture, at first attempt to grasp the meaning beyond philosophical thinking of the human live. Then find the relation between architecture and philosophy which are influences to the buildings.
The Symbol of Humanism
The historical founder of Buddhism Siddharta Gautama was born about 563 BC, the son of the ruler of Kapilavastu, into the princely clean of Sakyas on the border of
- All life is suffering.
- All suffering is the result of lust and desire.
- The removal of desire leads to the removal of suffering.
- The way to deliverance is through the Holy Eightfold Path which is: righteous belief; righteous intention; righteous word–truth and openness; righteous conduct–peaceful and pure; righteous living–causing no injury; righteous effort towards self-control; righteous thinking; righteous meditation.
The Holy Eightfold Path above mentioned which was given by the Buddha, constitute of one important par for attaining enlightenment. The basic foundation of the Holy Eightfold Path mention can be derived into the basic concept of temple and pagoda. Whose form in fact develops from the lotus petal as a place to sit for the Buddha. (Figure 2) This is the basic concept of the Eightfold Path, as the aims to attain enlightenment. It’s derived to the octagonal plan as a physical form. And so the lotus symbolism indicates a further significance of the pagoda plan delineate in the ritual. The lotus is the same as space, and the eight intermediate quarters are its petals. In Japanese temple this concept can be seen as a basic form of the octagonal plan foundation (kidan) of the pagoda. The octagonal plan was used as a basic form, and then its follow to the inside with the same plan. (Hirotaro 1967) (Figure 3 and Figure 4)
Figure 2. The basic concept of the Eightfold Path, as the aims to attain enlightenment. Its derived to the octagonal plan as a physical form.
Figure 3. The octagonal plan of the Anraku-ji,
Figure 4. Sansho-ji aisendo at Tofuku-ji,
From the moment in his career, when the deeper mysteries of the universe were revalued to him, the Buddha devoted himself to the paramount goal of winning for all humanity salvation or release from the endless cycle of rebirth. He recommended salvation by the individual’s work and action by following the Eightfold Path. A way of life possible for all and easily comprehensible by all, and free of the onerous and expensive ritual of Brahmanic tradition. In the eightieth year of his age, the Buddha achieved his final nirvana or death. As we shall presently, in later Buddhism nirvana came to mean that the immortal Buddha, who had manifested himself in mortal shape for the benefit of man, after ‘death’ resumed his place as the Lord of Paradise, there to await the souls of the faithful through all ages. Whether Buddha appears or disappears, Buddhahood always remains the same. Knowing this principle, one must keep to the path of Enlightenment and attain Perfect Wisdom, undisturbed by the apparent changes in the image of Buddha, in the condition of the world, or in the fluctuation of human though. It is said that his last words consisted of an encompassing realization and exhortation. All that has come to exist is transitory, the struggle must continue.
Almost from the beginning of Buddhist history there have been two schools of Buddhist teaching. One is Hinayana (or Therevada, Small Vehicle), is the Buddhism of such countries as
Buddhism a Philosophical Religion
In short, it was in the seventh and eight centuries that the efforts in this country for the acceptance of Buddhism began, and as a result of these efforts, the religion bloomed through that Zen Buddhism of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. A unique spiritual genius one of the greatest epoch-making events in the history of mankind, which in the course of time has come to enrich the human mind over many centuries up to the present day. Buddhism, the religion of reason and meditation, is the faith of approximately and of humanity.
Form here, the beginning of the philosophical thinker of Buddhism. With various kind of doctrine and schools practices principle development from the religion faith, that given by Gautama. Philosopher became involved in endless arguments on metaphysical problems which had, ultimately, no solutions. Is the world finite or infinite? Are the body and soul one or separate? Do men continue to live after death or not? This to represent something flank from the system of thinking or a part from metaphysical questions. Buddhism attempted to point to and teach dharma, the “true eternal law” or “perennial norm” that would be valid for humanity for all ages.
What is Buddhism? The questions about what is Buddhism have arisen for a many years up to know. This term in naturally derived from the above “Buddha”. Its mean the historical Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. Buddha there fore, means “the enlightened” or “the enlightened one”. It is taught in the Buddhism that all beings have Buddha-nature, or potentiality to become Buddhas. All those who had attained the state of enlightenment were Buddhas (Hanayama 1969:50). In other part, the meaning of Buddha means hotoke in Japanese word. Buddha or hotoke in Japanese word is a word which originally points of Sakyamuni himself as a historical manifestation of Buddha-hood. Sakyamuni has become hotoke by attaining to spiritual enlightenment. The later entity is called bosatsu. The etymologically meaning of hotoke also conveys the meaning of the enlightened nature of Buddha as “one who has spiritual awakening’ or ‘one who has awakened from illusion’. Bosatsu in contradiction is ‘one who is still devoted to studying the Way’. In the Sokushin-zebutsu (Mind is itself Buddha) Ehei Dogen explained, with the following conclusions: ‘so-called Buddhas are Sakyamuni. When all the Buddhas of the past, the present and the future become Buddha, they necessarily become Sakyamuni. It can be said that Dogen regards all Buddhas as possessing the same character as Sakyamuni and tries to find an ideal Buddha in Sakyamuni himself. Then there are three interpretations as Hanayama (1969:51) described for this term “Buddhism”:
- Buddhism is a religion which teaches how to become a Buddha.
- Buddhism is a religion which teaches the teaching of the Gautama Buddha.
- Buddhism is a religion which teaches what a Buddha signifies for the follower.
Followers of Buddhism, in the sense of the above three interpretation, are Buddhist. For those reasons it can be said that any one can be a Buddhist if his aims are to attain enlightenment by following the faith and teaching of the Buddha.
Engel, H. The Japanese House, A traditional for contemporary architecture.
Gropious, W., Tange, K. & Ishimoto, Y. 1962. Katsura Tradition and Creation in Japanese Architecture.
Hanayama, S. 1969. Buddhist Handbook.
Hirotaro, O. 1967. Genshoku Nihon no Bijutsu 10, Zendera to Ishitei.
Okumura, S. 1988. Dogen Zen. Kyoto: Kyoto Soto-Zen Center Sosenji.
Ross, N.W. 1966. Hinduism, Buddhism, Zen, an Introduction to their Meaning and their Arts.
Wickert, J.D. 1989. Borobudur. Jakarta: PT. Intermasa.
Wood. E. 1988. Zen Dictionary.
 According to the Keitoku-dentoroku, Bodhidharma was born in the southern part of
 Etymologically, nirvana has a negative meaning. Derived from the Sanskrit verb va (to blow, like the wind) with the negative prefix nir, it denotes a motionless rest where no wind blows, where the fire is quenched, the lights has been extinguished, the star has gone out, and the saint has deed. (See also Wood 1988:93-94)
 Founder of the Soto Zen sect.
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